People who want change but lack the necessary legitimization power to
sanction it themselves operate in three basic ways:
- Some stay within the boundaries of advocacy.
- Some attempt to function as pseudo-sponsors
- Some believe they are powerless to influence change.
Operate as if They are Advocates
Operate as if They are Sponsors
Operate as if Change is Impossible
|1||Determine what needs to be done and attempt to secure sponsorship.||Determine what needs to be done and initiate it.||Complain that the important things go undone.|
|2||Will only pursue changes that are considered critically important by the sponsor.||Will initiate a change, regardless of management’s support.||Will not pursue change-related ideas or actions.|
|3||Believe the flow of important change is top-down.||Believe the flow of important change is bottom-up.||Believe important changes are not going to happen.|
|4||View their job as helping the sponsor make informed decisions about change opportunities.||View their job as protecting the organization from management’s time limitations, short-sightedness, or incompetence.||View their job as administering to the victims of an organization that will not engage in needed change.|
|5||Prefer full application of management’s ideas.||Prefer superficial implementations of their ideas, rather than full implementations of management’s ideas.||Prefer explaining to the victims why change is not possible.|
|6||Focus attention on sponsor.||Focus attention on themselves.||Focus attention on victims.|
|7||Egos are bolstered by the feeling that
sponsor’s effectiveness is strengthened through their efforts.
|Egos are bolstered by the feeling that
management is dependent on them to “do what is best.”
|Egos are bolstered by the feeling that they are comforting the victims of an unjust system.|
|8||Demonstrate a high need to influence those who are in control.||Demonstrate a high need to exercise control through direct action.||Demonstrate a high need to protect victims.|
|9||Believe a “power base” can be
developed by shaping how sponsors define a situation.
|Believe a “power base” can only be
developed by taking direct action.
|Believe the only “power base”
available is to be admired by victims.
|10||Exercise influence through “reframing techniques — i.e., presenting attractive options, and the cost of the status quo.||Exercise control through relationship
techniques — i.e., intimidation or charisma.
|Believe it is not possible to exercise
influence or control.
|11||Believe what is most important is being effective.||Believe what is most important is being right.||Believe what is most important is to avoid making waves.|
|12||have low tolerance for adjusting to an unacceptable status quo.||Have low tolerance for not getting what they want.||have low tolerance for risk taking.|
|13||Are not easily threatened when ideas are rejected and are seldom defensive.||Are easily threatened when ideas are rejected are quick to react defensively.||Are so threatened that ideas are never offered.|
|14||Style of operating is assertive.||Style of operating is prescriptive.||Style of operating is passive aggressive.|
|15||Tend to confront barriers and operate directly.||Tend to circumvent barriers and operate indirectly.||Tend to submit to barriers.|
|16||F.O.R. is characterized by long-term
orientation, high tolerance for ambiguity, holistic thinking, strong
patience, and an ability to delay gratification.
|F.O.R. is characterized by short-term
orientation, low tolerance for ambiguity, binary thinking, minimal
patience, and a need for immediate gratification.
|F.O.R. is characterized by low self-esteem, helplessness, and being highly resentful towards management.|
|17||When faced with poor sponsorship, believe the options are education, replacement, or preparing to fail.||When faced with poor sponsorship, proceed with the facade.||When faced with poor sponsorship, advise the victims to accept the inevitable.|
|18||Measure success based on number of changes sustained.||Measure success based on the number of changes initiated.||Measure success based on number of victims administered to.|
Source: Selected Readings in Creating Healthy Organizations, LIOS handout (Connor)