|Beckhard & Haris (1977)||C = abc > x||How to heighten readiness for change; connects with Kotter re: urgency, vision, short-term wins.|
|Kotter (1996)Book: Leading change||Why Change Fails(How to help it succeed)
||Because it examines failure.
Because it develops the outline of a full system for change management, including systems change.
|Lewin (1951)||Force-Field||Understanding forces in the personal or social life space that influence behavior.Also, cognitive and motivational aspects of learning.|
|Schein (1985; 1999)||Culture
||Because talks about how org culture as a social fieldcan be understood, how it is created, and how it ultimately changes.Changes in culture can influence changes in person.|
|Connor (1988; 1992)book: Managing at the speed of change: How resilient managers succeed and prosper where others failbook: Leading at the edge of chaos: How to create the nimble organization||
|Kotter (1995)||Sources of “resistance to change”||Human sources of anxiety associated with change and how to help people move through transition.|
|Waterman, Peters & Phillips (1995)||7S Model||Highlights systemic interdependencies at organizational level.Shows how systemic structures must be aligned in order for change to occur.|
|Bridgesbook: Transitions: Making sense of life’s changes.||Managing personal transitions
||Highlights the importance of managing endings.Focus on personaltransition, but has organizational application.Qualitatively gets at the real experience of being in the midst of change from the inside out.|
|Bunker / Albanbook: Large group interventions: Engaging the whole system for rapid change||Large scale or whole system strategies for change.(Appreciative inquiry is not discussed, but this is one such strategy.)||Difference between incremental change and transformationalchange.Basically, alters the entire social fieldat one time.Premised on social construction theory.|